• Phytotherapy Research (2008).

    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18350516/

    • This was an observational study, so individuals self-selected to participate in the study, and all of the usual benefits of a randomized controlled trial are not here.
    • 90 subjects that wanted to lose weight took elderberry juice that was enriched with elderflower extract. Variables were measured at baseline and then after taking elderberry, so the design was pre- vs post-treatment within individual.  There was no control (lack of elderberry) group.  80 subjects completed follow-up and were included in the analysis.
    • The results of this study really can’t be trusted. The fact that people are included in a research study introduces a bias (Hawthorne effect) whereby behavior/lifestyle and diet might improve just by virtue of knowledge of being in in a study.  (Thus, the results of this study have not been noted.)

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