Phytotherapy Research (2008).
- This was an observational study, so individuals self-selected to participate in the study, and all of the usual benefits of a randomized controlled trial are not here.
- 90 subjects that wanted to lose weight took elderberry juice that was enriched with elderflower extract. Variables were measured at baseline and then after taking elderberry, so the design was pre- vs post-treatment within individual. There was no control (lack of elderberry) group. 80 subjects completed follow-up and were included in the analysis.
- The results of this study really can’t be trusted. The fact that people are included in a research study introduces a bias (Hawthorne effect) whereby behavior/lifestyle and diet might improve just by virtue of knowledge of being in in a study. (Thus, the results of this study have not been noted.)