• European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences (2014).

    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25491608/

    • Different parts of S. ebulus and S. nigra were evaluated for their antidepressant activities.
    • A mouse model of depression was used. Elderberry extracts were injected into the mice and compared to an antidepressant right before tests. 
    • The highest dose of elderberry showed a significant difference (better). A trend of dose response was observed but it was not statistically significant.
    • nigra fruit and S. ebulus fruit all showed significant differences from the antidepressant, and all treatments were better than the control.

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