Anti-influenza activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra)

Journal of Functional Foods (2019).

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1756464619300313?via%3Dihub

  •   Examined inhibitory effect of elderberry extract in different stages of influenza infection. 
  •   S. nigra berries came from Australia – juice was extracted then concentrated to concentrations of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, 0.315, 0.16, 0.08, and 0.04 mg/ml.
  •   Antiviral properties were demonstrated by blocking viral glycoproteins.  Higher levels of inhibition were seen with pre-treatment (prior to infection – in vitro experiments), though inhibition still seen without pre-treatment. 
  •   Treatment resulted in higher levels of IL6, IL8, and TNF (pro-inflammatory cytokines)
  •   Dose response inhibition also seen.
  •   Also saw increased inhibition with continued treatment, suggesting stronger effect in later influenza stage.  Percent inhibition was observed to be ~50% with pre-treatment only, regardless of elderberry concentration.  Conversely, inhibition was 100% with post-infection treatment.  This is different from older studies that suggest that elderberries are effective in the earlier stages. Need more information here relative to dosing.

Keywords: anti-viral, influenza, cytokine response

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