Anti-influenza activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra)
Journal of Functional Foods (2019).
- Examined inhibitory effect of elderberry extract in different stages of influenza infection.
- S. nigra berries came from Australia – juice was extracted then concentrated to concentrations of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, 0.315, 0.16, 0.08, and 0.04 mg/ml.
- Antiviral properties were demonstrated by blocking viral glycoproteins. Higher levels of inhibition were seen with pre-treatment (prior to infection – in vitro experiments), though inhibition still seen without pre-treatment.
- Treatment resulted in higher levels of IL6, IL8, and TNF (pro-inflammatory cytokines)
- Dose response inhibition also seen.
- Also saw increased inhibition with continued treatment, suggesting stronger effect in later influenza stage. Percent inhibition was observed to be ~50% with pre-treatment only, regardless of elderberry concentration. Conversely, inhibition was 100% with post-infection treatment. This is different from older studies that suggest that elderberries are effective in the earlier stages. Need more information here relative to dosing.
Keywords: anti-viral, influenza, cytokine response