Effects of Sambucus nigra and Aronia melanocarpa extracts on immune system disorders within diabetes mellitus
Pharm Biol (2015)
- Created mouse model of diabetes
- Collected S. nigra elderberries, dried them, and then gave dried extract to animals
- Saw dose-dependent cytokine production in mice with and without diabetes. (Baseline cytokine production (TNF and interferon-γ) in diabetic mice was lower but increased with elderberry administration.) This is anti-inflammatory in the context of diabetes (the authors also used the term “immunomodulatory”).
- Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from humans were also stimulated with elderberry and resulting cytokine levels showed TNF and interferon-γ. This means that not only are effects seen in vivo (within the animal), they are also seen in cells in a controlled setting. These findings validate each other.
Keywords: diabetes, inflammation, cytokine response