Randomized clinical trials of elderberry

RCT Summaries are written by Dr. Cathy Stein specifically for Trisha’s Elderberries. All rights reserved.
Dr. Cathy Stein has a PhD in epidemiology and her research focuses on infectious disease susceptibility.  She currently holds a tenured faculty position.
Note: all randomized controlled trials were double-blinded with placebo


  1. Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) supplementation effectively treats upper respiratory symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine (2019
  2. Pilot clinical study on a proprietary elderberry extract: Efficacy in ad-dressing influenza symptoms. Online J Pharmacol Pharmacokinetics, (2009)
  3. Inhibition of Several Strains of Influenza Virus in Vitro and Reduction of Symptoms by an Elderberry Extract {Sambucus nigra L.) during an Outbreak of Influenza B Panama, THE JOURNAL OF ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE (1995)
  4. Randomized Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Elderberry Extract in the Treatment of Influenza A and B Virus Infections, The Journal of International Medical Research (2004)
  5. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical TrialNutrients (2016)
  6. Elderberry Extract Outpatient Influenza Treatment for Emergency Room Patients Ages 5 and Above: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.  J Gen Intern Med (2020)

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