The research on elderberry is constantly evolving. We’ve categorized and curated 50 scientific papers on elderberry, elderflower and their chemical constituents of the plant part that contributes to the nutritional density of the common sambucus nigra plant.

We’ve hired Dr. Cathy Stein to help us understand these articles by creating easy-to-understand summaries. Dr. Cathy Stein has a PhD in epidemiology and her research focuses on infectious disease susceptibility.  She currently holds a tenured faculty position.

Randomized Clinical Trials for Cold, Flu and Upper Respiratory Viruses

Processed elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) products: A beneficial or harmful food alternative?

The study

  • Thermal processing, time and type of extraction solution greatly affected phenolics and cyanogenic glycosides in different elder-berry product
  • Processing significantly decreases the content of harmful cyanogenic glycosides but also affects beneficial anthocyanins.

  • Preparation of elderberry products, which include processing at high temperatures, does not always contribute to their inferior quality, as high temperature can effectively reduce the levels of harmful components and make elderberry products safer to consume.

The higher the better? Differences in phenolics and cyanogenic glycosides in Sambucus nigra leaves, flowers and berries from different altitudes

The study

  • Elder leaves: there was a significant difference within chemical constituents (ie: cafeic acid higher in higher altitudes but ferulic acid higher in lower altitudes) based on different altitudes, but the altitude-location interaction wasn’t significant.
  • Elder flowers: there was a significant difference for flavonols and HCAs at higher elevations but a decrease in flavanone content.
  • Elder berries: in all cases, phenols increased when grown in higher elevations

What makes Trisha’s Elderberries unique is that everything we do is based on research & science. We study. We hypothesize. We test. We observe. We read non-stop about the health benefits of the elder and the interaction that it has on the body. We collaborate with specialty MDs, university PhDs, pharmacists, herbalists, ethnobotanists and farmers, just to name a few. 

We value transparency. Here are the articles that have informed our formulas, flavors and choice in the products we create. 

Disclaimer: These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. This is for educational purposes only and not intended to diagnose or treat illness nor disease. These articles are not my individual work; however, a compilation of medical and scientific journal publications.   Please seek proper medical attention if you’re concerned about your health.

Anti-influenza activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra)

The study:


  • Elderberry exhibits multiple modes of therapeutic action against influenza infection.
  • Elderberry showed a mild inhibitory effect at early stages of the influenza cycle.
  • Its impact on the post-infection phase is considerably stronger than the early stages.
  • Elderberry possesses immunomodulatory property through stimulation of cytokines.
  • Cyn 3-glu had direct effects on influenza but did not stimulate the immune system.


Sambucus nigra extracts inhibit infectious bronchitis virus at an early point during replication

The study:

These results demonstrate that S. nigra extract can inhibit IBV ( a coronavirus) at an early point in infection, probably by rendering the virus non-infectious.

Advanced research on the antioxidant and health benefit of elderberry (Sambucus nigra) in food–a review

The study:

 • Elderberry bioactive compounds provide therapy for a number of diseases.

•  Elderberry medicinal properties are associated with counteracting oxidative stress.
•  Elderberry helps to prevent incidence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.

Elderberry syrup inhibits the flu & reduces symptoms.

The Study:

A significant improvement of the symptoms, including fever, was seen in 93.3% of the cases in the SAM-treated group within 2 days, whereas in the control group 91.7% of the patients showed an improvement within 6 days (p < 0.001).

A complete cure was achieved within 2 to 3 days in nearly 90% of the SAM-treated group and within at least 6 days in the placebo group (p < 0.001). 


The safety and effectiveness of elderberry syrup used against the flu.

The Study:

The global evaluation scores for the elderberry group showed a pronounced improvement. This difference was significant.

None of the patients reported any adverse reactions related to the medication. One participant receiving elderberry syrup disliked the taste.

As sedation is a main side-effect of most anti-influenza medications, the participants were specifically asked if they had any problem with sedation during the study period; none of the patients reported having such problems.


How elderberry syrup activates the immune system.

The Study:

We conclude that (elderberry juice) had a beneficial effect by the stimulating immune response and preventing viral infection.

Elderberry flavonoids prevent the flu.

The Study:

The elderberry extract inhibited Human Influenza A (H1N1) infection in vitro

Further more…

The H1N1 inhibition activities of the elderberry flavonoids compare favorably to the known anti-influenza activities of Oseltamivir (Tamiflu; 0.32 microM) and Amantadine (27 microM).

Elderberry syrup benefits the immune system & inflammatory process.

The Study:

Sambucol was shown to be effective in vitro against 10 strains of influenza virus. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study, Sambucol reduced the duration of flu symptoms to 3-4 days.

Sambucol Elderberry Extract and its formulations activate the healthy immune system by increasing inflammatory cytokine production. Sambucol might therefore be beneficial to the immune system activation and in the inflammatory process in healthy individuals or in patients with various diseases.

The effects of elderberry syrup on air travelers.

The Study:

Travelers using elderberry from 10 days before travel until 4–5 days after arriving overseas on average experienced a 2-day shorter duration of the cold and also noticed a reduction in cold symptoms.

Have you found any other research or evidence?  Comment below and share!

Best in health,

Subscribe Now

Get member-only content, promos & more delivered straight to your inbox. Save 10% on your next order, too! Sign-up is FREE!

You're in! Add "Trisha's Elderberries" to your safe sender's list & check your SPAM/Junk inbox, too.